A police officer has been indicted following the death of Breonna Taylor in March – but not on charges directly linked to her being shot.
Of the three officers involved, Brett Hankison was the only one to be indicted on three counts of first-degree wanton endangerment – after he fired his gun into neighbouring apartments.
He could face up to five years in prison for each of the three counts.
Kentucky’s attorney general said the investigation found the remaining two officers were justified in their use of force.
Taylor family lawyer Ben Crump described the lack of charges directly related to Ms Taylor’s death as “outrageous and offensive”.
And campaigner Linda Sarsour, of Until Freedom, tweeted: “Justice has NOT been served.
“Rise UP. All across this country. Everywhere. Rise up for #BreonnaTaylor.”
Ms Taylor, a 26-year-old emergency medical technician, was woken from her bed before being shot several times after police burst into her Kentucky apartment at night using a so-called “no-knock” arrest warrant that did not require them to announce themselves.
Police typically use them in drug cases over concerns that evidence could be destroyed if they announce their arrival.
The warrant used, however, was connected to a suspect who did not live there, and no drugs were found inside the home.
The use of no-knock warrants has since been banned by Louisville’s Metro Council.
Ms Taylor’s death sparked months of protests in Louisville and across the US, with the demonstrations intensified by the high-profile killings of other unarmed African Americans by police, such as George Floyd in Minneapolis and Daniel Prude in Rochester, New York.
Before the grand jury decision on charges, the Louisville Metro Police Department (LMPD) declared a “state of emergency”, with all holiday and leave cancelled and officers expected to work 12-hour shifts.
Federal buildings in downtown Louisville were also closed, according to local news station WAVE 3.
Last week, the city of Louisville settled a lawsuit from Ms Taylor’s family for $12m (£9.4m) and pledged several police reforms as part of the agreement.